Center lathe with digital read out and chuck guard. A metal lathe or metalworking lathe is a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard introduction to computer numerical control cnc pdf. This helps ensure the components manufactured on the machines can meet the required tolerances and repeatability.
The headstock is required to be made as robust as possible due to the cutting forces involved, which can distort a lightly built housing, and induce harmonic vibrations that will transfer through to the workpiece, reducing the quality of the finished workpiece. The main spindle is generally hollow to allow long bars to extend through to the work area. This reduces preparation and waste of material. The spindle runs in precision bearings and is fitted with some means of attaching workholding devices such as chucks or faceplates.
Later machines use a gear box driven by a dedicated electric motor. A fully ‘geared head’ allows the operator to select suitable speeds entirely through the gearbox. The bed is a robust base that connects to the headstock and permits the carriage and tailstock to be moved parallel with the axis of the spindle. This is facilitated by hardened and ground bedways which restrain the carriage and tailstock in a set track.